Jobs 心中的典範 -- 拍立得相機發明人 Edwin Land
2011/10/12 8:48 am 明道

《紐約時報》日前登出了由 Christopher Bonanos 所撰寫的專文,陳述了蘋果創辦人賈伯斯 Steve Jobs 心中典範 -- 寶麗來(Polaroid)的創辦人愛德恩蘭德 Edwin H. Land 的故事。

Steve Jobs 過世後,已經被拿來與發明大王愛迪生、汽車大王亨利福特,以及現代通訊之父貝爾相提並論,但卻很少人想到其實 Jobs 與 Land 十分相近; Land 研發拍立得相機帶來即拍即得的改變, Jobs 更以 Mac / Mac OS 、 iPod 、 iPhone 與 iPad 改變資訊、音樂、通訊與電腦產業。

在 1970 年代事業攀上巔峰的 Land 與現今的 Jobs 十分相像。他們倆都輟學、自學、創業、憑藉著發明與創新,擴張整個企業帝國版圖,並被媒體廣為宣揚,登上重要雜誌封面。而且更令人矚目的是 Land 與 Jobs 都信仰科學展示的威力, 60 年代 Land 習慣營造優雅的氣氛中親自展示公司新品給股東看,而 Jobs 更是擅長此道。



Jobs 也曾提及其對 Land 的推崇,例如在 1985 年接受《花花公子》雜誌專訪時提到, Land 是「國寶級人物」,實在無法理解何以這樣的人無法被當成偶像,而且太空人與美式足球球員都無法與之相提並論。

而 Jobs 也曾與 Land 兩次會談,其中一次蘋果前執行長也就是後來提議蘋果董事會將 Jobs 掃地出門的 John Sculley 曾於回憶錄中提及,當時 Land 告訴 Jobs 說他「似乎看見了其所想要的拍立得相機是什麼模樣」,就好像「它在 Land 面前出現,然後 Land 將所看到的樣子去設計」。結果 Jobs 表示「這也是他夢想 Macintosh 一樣的方式」,因為其他只用過計算機的人根本無法想像,所以只能憑靠自己進行,畢竟無法先進行消費者研究與調查,才讓創見就其結果順應而生。


據說 Jobs 也有此張照片:Land 於哈佛大學羅蘭研究院(Rowland Institute)留影

Jobs 與 Land 都相信行銷手段只對走下坡的非優質商品才有用,而非拿來幫助創新。 Land 認為,每一個重大發明都必須要讓人無法預料,一出場就令人大感驚訝;唯有出人意表,才能帶給世人帶來極大震撼。也難怪當年記者詢問 Jobs 在推出 iPad 前進行多少市場調查時, Jobs 的回應竟然是:「沒有。因為消費者搞不清楚他們要的是什麼。」

此外, Jobs 與 Land 都十分癡狂地追求完美, Land 在研發方面的預算更是瘋狂,傳說當初他斥資 20 億美元研發經典並成功阻擋柯達公司攻勢的 SX-70 拍立得相機一樣。為此, Jobs 曾推崇 Land 是當時最偉大的發明家之一,因為他找到了藝術、科學與商業的交叉點,並以此建立自己的企業。



不過 Land 也如 Jobs 的命運一樣,由於在 1970 年代中期所推出的即時錄放影家庭戲院系統 Polavision 花費了長達十年的研發時間,已經時不我予,不敵 SONY 的 Betamax 系統,導致該系統的失敗。而 Land 也付出不被寶麗來的董事會與同仁信任的代價,於是後來就交出職位,也喪失了在研發上揮霍的權限。鬱鬱寡歡的 Land 在推出 Polavision 四年後的 1982 年離開寶麗來,並把手上的佔整個寶麗來 8.3% 的股票悉數賣出,也沒現身於寶麗來的五十週年慶祝大會。

Jobs 離開蘋果的故事就不贅言了,不過與 Land 不同的,是 Jobs 倒是留了一股蘋果股票沒賣掉,以便收到蘋果公司的年報。



在充滿傳奇的創辦人離開公司後,寶麗來與蘋果都開始往下沈淪,當然兩家公司的命運可就大不同,因為蘋果在十二年後迎回 Jobs ,並開始如欲火鳳凰般起死回生,絕地大反攻;但 Land 在離開寶麗來後十一年就過世了; Land 助理在其過世後,把其生前所有筆記都用碎紙機銷毀。

今天寶麗來依然存在,但與當年的不可一世相比已經是昨日黃花。自 2001 年來,該公司已經宣布破產兩次,還三次遭到待價而沽的命運,甚至於其前執行長因詐欺罪被叛五十年的有期徒刑。目前寶麗來似乎正想重新再創黃金歲月,但令人很難相信會有什麼重大改變。鑑往知來,今日蘋果執行長 Cook 或許該謹記寶麗來的警世故事。



▉ 延伸觀賞:

寶麗來與 Land 相關的介紹、廣告與宣傳影片:



▉ 延伸閱讀:

Land 名言錄:

  • 關於合作:
    Politeness is the poison of collaboration.
  • 關於行銷:
    Marketing is what you do when your product is no good.
  • 什麼是科學:
    Science is a method to keep yourself from kidding yourself.

  • 論創新發明:
    Over the years, I have learned that every significant invention has several characteristics. By definition it must be startling, unexpected, and must come into a world that is not prepared for it. If the world were prepared for it, it would not be much of an invention.

  • 創造力的重點:
    An essential aspect of creativity is not being afraid to fail. Scientists made a great invention by calling their activities hypotheses and experiments. They made it permissible to fail repeatedly until in the end they got the results they wanted. In politics or government, if you made a hypothesis and it didn't work out, you had your head cut off.

  • 關於研發底線:
    The bottom line is in heaven.

  • 關於保密:
    One of the best ways to keep a great secret is to shout it.

  • 關於權力最重要的事:
    The most important thing about power is to make sure you don't have to use it.

  • 論誠實:
    We can be dramatic, even theatrical; we can be persuasive; but the message we are telling must be true.

  • 論膽量:
    Now, partly that was work, and partly that was brains, but very largely it was having the guts, the guts to be immodest in the right way.

  • 論潛能:
    My whole life has been spent trying to teach people that intense concentration for hour after hour can bring out in people resources they didn't know they had.

  • 論實現:
    You always start with a fantasy. Part of the fantasy technique is to visualize something as perfect. Then with the experiments you work back from the fantasy to reality, hacking away at the components.

  • 談世界改變:
    We live in a world changing so rapidly that what we mean frequently by common sense is doing the thing that would have been right last year.

  • 歷史教了什麼:
    The world is a scene changing so rapidly that it takes every bit of intuitive ability you have, every brain cell each one of you has, to make the sensible decision about what to do next. You cannot rely upon what you have been taught. All you have learned from history is old ways of making mistakes. There is nothing that history can tell you about what we must do tomorrow. Only what we must not do.

  • 論創意:
    It's not that we need new ideas, but we need to stop having old ideas.

  • 談哈佛商學院沒教的事:
    There's a rule they don't teach you at Harvard Business School. It is: If anything is worth doing, it's worth doing to excess.

  • 座右銘:
    My motto is very personal and may not fit anyone else or any other company. It is: Don't do anything that someone else can do. Don't undertake a project unless it is manifestly important and nearly impossible.

    編按】倘若想閱讀更多關於 Steve Jobs 賈伯斯生前、健康變化、過世的相關報導,與老地方冰果室所舉辦的問卷調查與追思活動,請參考「老地方冰果室中關於 Jobs 的相關報導、活動與問卷調查」特別整理。